ko - sher
1. Legitimate, permissible.
2. Conforming to Scriptural dietary laws.
29. And Elohim said, “See, I have given you every plant that yields seed which is on the face of all the earth, and every tree whose fruit yields seed, to you for food.
1. And YHWH spoke to Mosheh and to Aharon, saying to them,
2. “Speak to the children of Yisrael saying, ‘These are the living creatures which you do not eat among the beasts that are on the earth:
3. ‘Whatever has a split hoof completely divided, chewing the cud, among the beasts, that you do eat.
4. ‘ Only these you do not eat among those that chew the cud or those that have a split hoof: the camel, because it chews the cud but does not have a split hoof, it is unclean to you;
5. and the rabbit, because it chews the cud but does not have a split hoof, it is unclean to you;
6. and the hare, because it chews the cud but does not have a split hoof, it is unclean to you;
7. and the pig, though it has a split hoof, completely divided, yet it does not chew the cud, it is unclean to you.
8. ‘Their flesh you do not eat, and their carcasses you do not touch. They are unclean to you.
9. ‘These you do eat of all that are in the waters: any one that has fins and scales in the waters, in the seas or in the rivers, that you do eat.
10. ‘But all that have not fins and scales in the seas and in the rivers, all that move in the waters or any living creature which is in the waters, they are an abomination to you.
11. ‘They are an abomination to you - of their flesh you do not eat and their carcasses you abominate.
12. ‘All that have not fins or scales in the waters is an abomination to you. 13. ‘All these you do abominate among the birds, they are not eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the vulture, and the black vulture,
14. and the hawk, and the falcon after its kind,
15. every raven after its kind,
16. and the ostrich, and the nighthawk, and the seagull, and the hawk after its kind,
17. and the little owl, and the fisher owl, and the great owl,
18. and the white owl, and the pelican, and the carrion vulture,
19. and the stork, the heron after its kind, and the hoopoe, and the bat.
20. ’All flying insects that creep on all fours is an abomination to you.
21. ’Only these you do eat of every flying insect that creeps on all fours: those which have jointed legs above their feet with which to leap on the earth.
22. ’ These of them you do eat: the locust after its kind, and the destroying locust after its kind, and the cricket after its kind, and the grasshopper after its kind.
23. ‘But all other flying insects which have four feet is an abomination to you.
24. ‘And by these you are made unclean, anyone touching the carcass of any of them is unclean until evening,
25. ‘And anyone picking up part of the carcass of any of them has to wash his garments, and shall be unclean until evening.
26. ‘Every beast that has a split hoof not completely divided, or does not chew the cud, is unclean to you. Anyone who touches their carcass is unclean.
27. ‘And whatever goes on its paws, among all the creatures that go on all fours, those are unclean to you. Any one who touches their carcass is unclean until evening,
28. and he who picks up their carcass has to wash his garments, and shall be unclean until evening. They are unclean to you.
29. ‘And these are unclean to you among the creeping creatures that creep on the earth: the mole, and the mouse, and the tortoise after its kind, 30. and the gecko, and the land crocodile, and the sand reptile, and the sand lizard, and the chameleon.
31. ‘These are unclean to you among all that creep. Anyone who touches them when they are dead becomes unclean until evening.
32. ‘And whatever any of them in its dead state falls upon, becomes unclean, whether it is any wooden object or garment or skin or sack, any object in which work is done, it is put in water. And it shall be unclean until evening, then it shall be clean.
33. ‘Any earthen vessel into which any of them falls, whatever is in it becomes unclean, and you break it.
34. ‘Any of the food which might be eaten, on which water comes, becomes unclean, and any drink which might be drunk from it becomes unclean.
35. ‘And on whatever any of their carcass falls becomes unclean - an oven or cooking range - it is broken down. They are unclean, and are unclean to you.
36. ‘But a fountain or a well, a collection of water is clean, but whatever touches their carcass is unclean.
37. ‘And when any of their carcass falls on any planting seed which is to be sown, it is clean.
38. ‘But when any water is put on the seed and any part of any such carcass falls on it, it is unclean to you.
39. ‘And when any of the beasts which are yours for food dies, he who touches its carcass becomes unclean until evening.
40. ‘And who eats of its carcass has to wash his garments, and shall be unclean until evening. And he who picks up its carcass has to wash his garments and shall be unclean until evening.
41. ‘And every creeping creature that creeps on the earth is an abomination, it is not eaten.
42. ‘Whatever crawls on its stomach, and whatever goes on all fours, and whatever has many feet among all creeping creatures that creep on the earth, these you do not eat, for they are an abomination.
43. ‘Do not make yourselves abominable with any creeping creature that creeps, and do not make yourself unclean with them lest you be defiled by them.
44. ‘For I am YHWH your Elohim, and you shall set yourselves apart. And you shall be set-apart, for I am set-apart. And do not defile yourselves with any creeping creature that creeps on the earth.
45. ‘For I am YHWH who is bringing you up out of the land of Mitsrayim, to be your Elohim. And you shall be set-apart, for I am set-apart.
46. ‘This is the Torah of the beasts and the birds and every living creature that moves in the waters, and of every creature that creeps on the earth,
47. to make a distinction between the unclean and the clean, and between the living creature that is eaten and the living creature that is not eaten.’ ”
When reading Scripture it is always important to be willing to receive Its instruction and look for the answers that YHWH wants to give us rather than answers to fit our own desires. Search the Scripture to understand the things that YHWH approves of and the things that please Him. These dietary instructions came from Him to us, regardless of any potential health benefit of following this diet, these are His instructions. We are blessed to receive the Torah!
Usually the first thing people think of when the topic of ‘kosher’ comes up is pork. Since the pig is such a popular topic when discussing kosher, I will comment specifically on the pig. Kosher is not about pork and whether its healthy or unhealthy, its not about how the food and its ingredients have been handled, its about following YHWH’s instructions, His Torah, a gift from our Creator are instructions for our good. I have read books on the subject and have been impressed by the research that people have put into the subject of a kosher diet. I have heard so much information just on pork alone, here is a few, not necessarily true, it takes 14 days to digest, when eating pork the acid levels in your stomach decline so much that it jeopardizes your stomachs ability to destroy parasites and bacteria, its high in salt and is a leading contributor to high blood pressure, bacon has so many preservatives in the meat that you really are only able to digest the fat and medical experts say its not even food, and of course from pork farmers, these diet ‘rules’ changed with the sacrifice of the Messiah. Even science and medicine agree with the health benefits of following a kosher diet. Wow, so much information, how about this, YHWH said don’t eat the pig, so, don’t eat the pig.
The 29th verse of Genesis 1 tells us the fruit and vegetable part of our diet and the 47 verses of Leviticus 11 very simply tell us YHWH’s instructions for our diet pertaining to living creatures. When these instructions were first given, nobody reasoned them as being acceptable because studies showed… No, they chose to obey the words of YHWH by faith. Nothing has changed from that time, we are still to live by faith and follow the Words of the Most High God. As He has not changed neither has His Word. Let us choose to follow His torah and enjoy the blessings He has set for us.
Genesis 1 verse 29 tells us that only the plants on the face of the earth that yield seed and the trees whose fruit yields seed are for food. Rather than list every plant food I can think of it will be simpler that when considering a food to hold it to a set criteria. The Scripture tells us first that the plant has to be on the face of the earth, not in it or under it. Therefore things that grow in darkness are not food and things that do not produce seed are off the list as well. Mushrooms do not produce seed even though some do grow on the face of the earth, while most grow in darkness. Many plants are eaten before they mature to the point of producing seed, so we don’t always recognize them as following this instruction. Leafy plants in particular fit this category, like lettuces and cabbage. Since the Scripture says He has given the plant that produces seed, it means what it says; He has given the plant not just the seed. This answers the potatoe and carrot question, yes, potatoes and carrots are kosher. Both plants produce seeds when mature. So the next time you are in the market and you are ready to buy what is called fruits and vegetables, ask yourself, does it grow on the face of the earth, does it produce seed? If you can answer yes to these two simple questions, it’s kosher. YHWH has never given an instruction that is too hard to follow; He is our loving heavenly Father.
Leviticus 11 gives the instructions concerning living creatures, what may be eaten and what must not be eaten. Verse 3 speaks about animals that we typically would refer to as meat, verse 9 speaks about seafood, verse 13 speaks about fowl and winged things, and verse 21 speaks about insects. Every verse in this passage is important and should not be omitted from study. These few verses give the general guideline with the other verses making the instructions perfectly clear so there are no questions.
Verse 3 tells us that for the animal to be clean it must have a hoof that is completely divided and it must chew its cud. I know that not everybody has an understanding of what different animals look like outside of the food market. We usually don’t think of what the cow looked like when we are selecting a beef roast, so there is a list of kosher animals at the end of this page.
Verse 9 tells us that seafood, that is the creatures that live in waters, rivers or seas are clean if it has fins and scales. Depending on where you live this is easy since you may be purchasing your seafood live. You can say hello to it and see first hand if it has fins and scales. If that is not a luxury you enjoy its okay because at the end of this page there is a list of kosher seafood.
Verse 13 explains the birds differently from the animals and seafood. The birds are listed individually and while not every species of bird is found here, there is no question about the ones that are in these verses. The birds mentioned here, we are to abominate, truly despise them. That leaves all of the other unmentioned birds in the clean category. There are birds on the list that probably nobody in a modern culture would consider eating although in the United States, I am familiar with people eating the raven and the ostrich. These things are an abomination! Ask yourself before eating the bird; is it on the list to abominate? There is a list of common clean birds at the end of the page.
Verse 21 covers insects, telling us what we can eat. Three things, the locust, the cricket, and the grasshopper. In the following verses the unclean insects are listed, which would be anything other than the three mentioned in verse 21.
This whole chapter is filled with simple and clear instructions on what to eat and what not to eat; it instructs us how to handle contact with the unclean creatures and how to handle the clean ones when they are dead.
These instructions from our Creator are certainly for our benefit. As we honor Him and obey His Torah certainly we will be overtaken by His blessings.
These lists are not Scripture, use them as a guide, they are not necessarily complete. Many creatures are known by different names in different geographies. For example, Suzuki, Barramundi and Sea Bass are the basically same fish with different names. Not every creature is listed here.
All kinds of Hawks
All Kinds of Owls
Has a split hoof and chews the cud, must have both.
Does not have both the split hoof and chews the cud,
Or walks on paws.
Must have both fins and scales.
Anchovies (Family Engraulidae). Including: European anchovy (Engraulis encrasciolus), North of California anchovy br(Engraulis mordax).
Angelfishes and butterfly fishes (Family Chaetodontidae). Including: Angelfishes (Holacanthus species, Pomacanthus species).
ama or reineta which go by the Latin name lepidotus austrais or lepidotus raii)
Barracudas (Family Sphyraenidae)
Atlantic Pomfret or Ray's Bream(Brama rracudas and kakus (Sphyraena species).
Bigeyes (Family Priacanthidae). Including: Bigeyes or aweoweos (Priacanthus species).
Bluefish or snapper blue (Pomatomus saltarix)
Bombay duck (Harpadeon nehereus)
Bonefish (Albula vulpes)
Bowfin Freshwater dogfish, or grindle (Amia calva)
ButterFishes (Family Stromateidae), Including: Butterfish (Peprilus tracanthus); Pacific pompano (Peprilus similimus); harvestfishes (Peprilus species)
Carps and minnows (Family Cyprinidae), Including: the carp, leather carp, mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio); Crucian carp (Carassius carassius); Goldfish (Carassius auratus); tench (Tinca tinca); Splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus); Squawfishes (Ptychocheilus species); Scramento backfish or hardhead (Orthodon microlepidotus); Freshwater breams (Abramis species, Blicca species); Roach (Rutilus rutilus).
Caviar (Must be from a kosher fish)
Chilean Sea Bass (Dissostichus eleginoides)
Cichlids (Family Chichilidae), Including: Tilapias (Tilapia species); Mozambique mouthbrooder (Tilapia mossambica); Cichlios (Cichlasoma species); Rio Grande perch (Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum)
Cobia, cabio, or black bonito (Rachycentron canadum) Cod, cultus, black, blue, or ling., Sablefish
Codfishes(Family Gadidae), Including: Cod (Gadus morhua), Haddock (Melanogrammus aegiefinus); Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus); Pollock, saithe, or coalfish (Pollachius virens); Walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma); Hakes (Urophycis species); Whiting (Meriangiu meriangus); Blue whiting or poutassou (Micromesistius poutassou); Tomcods or frostfishes (Microgradus species); note. some cods are not-kosher; .
Corbina or Corvina,
Damselfishes(Family Pomacentridae). Including: Blacksmith (Chromis punctipinnis); Garibaldi (Hypsypops rubicunda).
Dolphin fishes or mahimahis (Coryphaena species) Not to be confused with the Mammal called Dolphin or Porpoise, which is non kosher.
Drums and croakers (Family Sciaenidae), Including: Seatrouts and carvinas (Cynoscion species); Weakfish (Cynoscion nebulosus); White seabass (Cynoscion nobillis); Croakers (micropogon species, Bairdiella species, Odontoscion species); Silver perch (Bairdiella chyrsura); White or King croaker (Genyonemus lineatus); Black croaker (cheilottena saturnum); Spotfin croaker (Roncadorstearnsi); Yellowfin croaker(Umbrinaroncador); Drums (Pogonias species, Stellifer species, Umbrina species); Red drum or channel bass (Sciaenops ocallata); Freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens); Kingfishes or king whitings (Menticirrhus species); California corbina (Menticirrhus undulatus); spot or lafayette (Leiostomus xanthurus); Queenfish (Seriphus politus); Cubbyu or ribbon fish (Equetus umbrosus).
Flounders (Families Bothidae and Pleuronectidae). Including:
Flounders (Paralichthys species,
Starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus);
Summer flounder or fluke (Paralichthys denatus);
Yellowtail flounder (limanda ferrugina);
Winter flounder, lemon sole or blackback (Pseudopleuronectes americanus);
Halibuts (Hippoglossus species);
California halibut (Paralichthys Californicus);
Bigmouth sole (Hippoglossina stomata);
Butter of scalyfin sole (Isopsetta isolepis);
"Dover" sole (Microstomus pacificus);
"English" sole (Parophrys vetulus);
Fantail sole (Xystreurys liolepis);
Petrale sole (Eopsetta jordan);
Rex sole (Glyptocephalus zichirus);
Rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata);
Sand Sole (Psettichthys melanostictus);
Slender sole (Lyopsetta exillis);
Yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera);
Pacific turbots (Pleuronichthys species);
Curlfin turbot or sole (Pleuronichthys decurrens);
Diamond turbot (Hypsopsetta guttulata);
Greenland turbot or halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides);
Sanddabs (Citharichthys species);
Dabs (Limanda species);
American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides);
European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa);
Brill (scophthalmus rhomus).
But not including: European turbot (Scophthalmus maximus or Psetta maximus).
Flyingfishes and halfbeaks (Family Exocoetidae); Flyingfishes (Cypselurus species, and others); Ballyhoo or balao (Hemiramphus species).
Giant kelpfish (Heterostichus rostratus)
Goatfishes or surmullets (Family Mullidae). Including: Goatfishes (Mullus species, Pseudupeneus species); Wekes or goatfishes (Mulloidichthys species, Upeneus species); Kumu (Parupeneus species); Red mullet (Mullus surmuletus).
Gobies (Family Gobidae), Including: Bigmouth sleeper or guavina (Gobiomorus dormitor); Sirajo goby (sicydium plumieri)
Goldeye and mooneye (Hiodon alosoides and Hiodon tergisus).
Greenlings (Family Hexagrammidae), Including: Greenlings (Hexagrammos species); Kelp greenling or seatrout (Hexagrammos decagrammus); Lingcod, cultus orblue cod (Ophiodonelongatus); Atkamackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius).
Grunts (Family Pomadasyldae), Including; Grunts (Haemulon species, Pomadasys species); Margate (Haemulon album); Tomtate (Haemulon aurolineattum); Cottonwick (Haemulon melanurum); Sailors choice (Haemulon parral); Porkfish (Anisotremus virginicus); Black margate (Anisotremus surinamensis); Sargo (Anisotremus davidsoni); Pigfish (Orthopristis chrysoptera).
Hakes(Family Meriucciidae), Including: Hakes (Merluccius species); Silver hake or whiting (Meriuccius bilinearis); Pacific hake or meriuccio (Meriuccius productus)
Hawkfishes(Family Cirrhitidae). Including: Hawkfishes (Cirrhitus species).
Herrings (Family Clupeidae), Including: Atlantic and Pacific herring (Clupae harengus subspecies); thread herrings (Opisthonema species); Shads (Alosa species); Shad or glut herring, or blueback (Alosa aestivalis); Hickory shad (Alosa mediocris); Alewife or river herring (Alosa pseudoharengus); Gizzard shads (Dorosoma species); Menhadens or mossbunkers (Brevoortia species); Spanish sardines (Sardineila anchovia); European sardine or pilchard (Sardina pilchardus); Pacific sardine or pilchard (Sardinops sagax); Spart (Sprattus sprattus)
Jacks and Pompanos (Family Charangidae) Including: Pompanos, palometas, and permits (Trachionotus species); Amberjacks and yellowtails (Seriola species); California yellowtail (Seriola dorsalls); Scads and cigarfish (Decapterus species, Selar species, Trachurus species); Jack mackerel or horse mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus); Jacks and uluas (Caranx species, Carangoides species); Crevalles (Caranx species); Blue runner (Caranx crysos); Rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulata); Moonfishes (Vomer species); Lookdown (Selene vomer); Leatherback or lae (Scomberoides sanctipetri); BUT NOT INCLUDING: LEATHERJACKET (Oligoplites saurus).
John Dory (Zeus faber)
Ladyfish, or tenpounder (Elops saurus)
Mackerels and tunas (Family Scombridae), Including: Mackerels (Scomber species, Scomberomorus species, Auxis species); Spanish mackerels, cero, and sierra (Scomberomorus species); King mackerel or kingfish (Scomberomorus cavalla); Bonitos (Sarda species); Wahoo (Acanthocybius solanderi); tunas (Thunnus species, Euthynnus species); Skipjack tunas (Euthynnus or Katsuwonus species); Albacore (thunnus alalunga) But not including: Snake mackerels.
Merluccio Milkfish or awa (Chanos chanos)
Mojarras (Family Gerreidae) including: Mojarras (Eucinostomus species, Gerres species, Diapterus species)
Monkeyface prickleback or eel (Cebidichthys violaceus)
Mullets (Farnily Mugilidae) including: Mullets and amaamas (Mugil species); Uouoa (Neomyxus chaptallii); Mountain mullets or dajaos (agonostomus species)
Needlefishes (Family Beslonidae) Needlefishes or marine gars (strongylura species, Tylosuru species)
Parrotfishs (Family Scaridae) including: Parrotfishes and uhus (Scarus species, Slparisoma species)
Patagonian Toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides)
Perch Perches(Family Percidae) including: Yellow perch (Perca flavescens); Walleye, pike perch, or yellow or blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum); Sauget (Stizostedion canadense)
Pikes (Family Esocidae) including; Pike (esox lucius); Pickerels (Esox species); Muskellunge (esox masquinongy)
Porgies and sea breams (Family Sparidae). Including: Porgies (Calamus species, Diplodus species, Pagrus species); Scup (Stenotomus chrysops); Pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides); Sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus)
Rabalo Ray's bream
Red snapper Redfish
Roach Rock bass
Runner Sablefish or black cod (Anoplopoma fimbria)
Saithe See: Codfishes
Salmon Sardine Sargo Sauger
Scorpionfishes (family Scorpaenidae), Including: Scorpionfishes (Scorpaena species); California scorpionfish or sculpin (Scorpaena guttata); Nohus (Scorpaenopsis species); Redfish, rosefish, or ocean perch (Sebasters marinus); rockfishes (Sebasters species, Sebastodes species); Pacific ocean perch (Sebastes alutus); Chilipepper (Sebastes goodel); Bocaccio (Sebastes paucipinus); Shortspine thornyhead or channel rockfish (Sebastolobus alascanus)
Sea basses (Family Serranidae) including: Black sea basses (Centropristis species); Groupers (Epinephelus species, and Mycteroperca species); Rockhind (Epinephelus adscensionis); Speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi); Red hind (Epinephelus guttatus); Jewfish (Epinephelus itajara); Spotted cabrilla (Epinephelus analogus); Gag (Mycteroperca microlepis); Scamp (Mycteroperca phenax); Graysby (petrometopon cruentatum); Mutton hamlet (Alphestes afer) Sand bass, kelp bass, and spotted bass (Paralabrax species)
Sea chubs (Family Kyphosidae) including: Bermuda chug or rudderfish (Kyphosus sectatrix); Opaleye (Girella nigrican); Halfmoon (Medialuna californiensis)
Searobins(Family Triglidae); Searobins (Prionotus species)
Silversides (Family Athernidae) including: Whitebait, spearing, or silversides (Menidia species); California grunion (Leurusthes tenuis); Jacksmelt (Atherinopsis californiensis); Topsmelt (Atherinops affinis)
Smelts (Family Osmeridae) including: Smelts (Osmerus species); Capelin (Malotus villosus); Eullachon (Thaleichthys pacificus)
Snappers (Family Lutjanidae) including: Snappers (Lutjanus species); Schoolmaster (Lutjanus apodus); Muttonfish or mutton snapper (Lutjanus analis); Red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus); Yellowtail snapper (Ocyurus chrysurus); Kalikali (Pristipomoides sieboldi); Opakapaka (Pristipomoides microlepis); Onaga (Etelis carbunculus)
Snooks (Family Centropomidae) including: Snooks orrabalos (Centropomus species)
Soles (Family Soleidae), Including: Sole or true sole (solea solea); Lined sole (Achirus lineatus); Hogchoker (Trinectes maculatus).
Spadefishes (Family Ephippidae). Including: Spadefishes (Chaetodipterus species)
Squirrelfishes(Family Holocentridae), Including: Squirrelfishes (Holocentrus species); Menpachii (Myripristis species).
Suckers(Family Catostomidae). Including: Buffalo fishes (Ictiobus species); Suckers (Catostomus species, Moxostoma species); Quillbacks or carpsuckers (Carpiodes species)
Sunfishes(Family Centrarchidae). Including: Freshwater basses (Micropterus species); Largemouth bass (Microterus salmoides); Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui); Sunfishes (Lepomis species); Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus); Warmouth (Lepomis macrochirus); Rock bass or red eye (Ambloplites rupestris); Crappies or calico basses (Pomoxis species)
Surfperches (Famly Embiotocidae). Including: Surfperches (Amphistichus species, Hyperprosopon species); Seaperches (Embiotoca species, Hypsurus species, Phanerodon species, Rhacochilus species); Blackperth (Embiotoca jacksoni); Pile perch (Rhacochilus vacca); Shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata).
Surgeonfishes (Family Acanthuridae). Including: Surgeonfishes and tangs (Acanthurus species, Zebrasoma species); Doctorfish (Acanthurus chirugus); Unicornfishes or kalas (Naso species).
Tarpon (Megalops atlantica)
Temperate basses (Family Percichthyidae). Including: Striped bass or rockfish (morone saxatillis); Yellow bass (Morone mississippiensis); White bass (Morojne chrysops); White perch (Morone americana); Giant California sea bass (Stereolepis gigas)
Threadfins (Family polynemidae) including: Blue bobo (Polydactylus approximans); Barbu (Polydactylus virginicus); Moi (Polydactylus sexfilis)
Tilefishes (Family Branchiostegidae) including: tilefish (Logholatilus chamaeleonticeps) Ocean whitefish (Caulolatilus princeps)
Tripletail (Lobotes surinamensis)
Trouts and whitefishes (Family Salmonidae) including: Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); Pacific salmons (Oncorhtnchus species); Coho or silver salmon; sockeye, blueback or red salmon; chinook, king or spring salmon; pink or humpback salmon; chum, dog or fall salmon, Trouts (Salmo species) Brown trout, rainbow trout or steelhead, cutthroat trout, golden trout, Chars (Salvelinus species); Lake trout, brook rout, Arctic char (salvelinus alpinus), Dolly Varden, Whitefishes and ciscos (coregonus species and Prosopium species); Cisco or lake herring (Corengonus artedii); chubs (coregonus species); graylings (thymallus Species)
Turbot (some nonkosher)
Walleye Walleye pollock
Wrasses (Family Labridae) including: Hogfishes and aawas (Bodianus species); Hogfish or capitaine (Lachnolaimus maximus); Tautog or blackfish (Tautoga onitis); California sheephead or redfish (Pimelometopon pulchrum); Cunner, chogset, or bergall (Tautogolabrus adspersus)
Yellowtail Yellowtail snapper
Does not have both fins or scales.
Basa (Pangasius bocourti)
Billfishes (Family Istiophoridae). Including fishes (Istiophorus species); Marlins and speishes (Tetrapterus species, Makaira species).
Catfishes (Order Siluriformes). Including: Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus); Basa (Pangasius bocourti, Tra (Pangasius hypophthalmus)
Cutlassfishes (Family Trichiuridae) including: Cutlassfishes (Trichiurus species) Scabbardfishes (Lepidopus species)
Eels (Order Anguilliforms). Including American and European eel (Anguilia rostrata and Anguila anguila) ; Conger eel (Conger oceanic us) . Gars (Order Semionotiformes). Freshwater gars (Lepisosteus species).
Freshwater Cod (Family Gadidae), Burbot, lawyer, or freshwater ling (lota lota).
Goosefishes or anglers (Lophius species)
Hoki (macruronus novaezelandiae) also known as Blue Hake
Lampreys (Family Petromyzontidae)
Leatherjacket (Oligoplites saurus)
Lomosuckers (Family Cyclopteridae). Including: Lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus); Snailfishes (Liparis species).
Monk fish (added by Rabbi Donneal Epstein in consultation with Dr. Atz)
Ocean pout or eelpout (Macrozoarces americanus)
Oilfish (Ruvettus pretiosus) Puffers (Family Tetraodontidae).
Puffers, blowfishes, swellfishes, sea squab (Sphoeroides species)
Rock prickleback or rockeel (Xiphister mucosus)
Sand lances, launces, or eels (Ammodytes species)
Sculpins (Family Cottidae). Including: Sculpins (Myoxocephalus species, Cottus species, Leptocottus species, etc.). Cabezon (Scorpaenichthys marmoratus); Searaven (Hemitripterus americanus)
Sharks, rays and their relatives (Class Chondrichthyes). Including Grayfishes or dogfishes (Mustelus species, Squalus species); Soupfin shark (Galeorhinus zyopterus); Sawfishes (Pristis species); Skates (Raja species); Chimaeras or ratfishes (Order Chimaeriformes).
Snake mackerels (Gempylus species)
Sturgeons (Order Acipenseriformes). Including: Sturgeons (Acipensen species, Scaphirhynchus species); Beluga (huso uso); Paddlefish or spoonbill cat (Polyodon spathula)
Swordfish (Xiphias gladies)
Toadfishes (Family Batrachoididae). Including: Toadfishes (Opsanus species); Midshipment (Porichthys species).
Tiggerfishes and firefishes (Family Balistidae). Triggerfishes (Balistes species, Canthidermis species)
Tra (Pangasius hypophthalmus)
Trunkfishes (Family Ostraciidad). Trunkfishes and cowfishes (Lactophrys species). WolEshes (Family Anarhichadidae). Including: Wolffishes or ocean. catfishes (Anarhichas species)
This is not fish but often associated with fish in the market. They do not have both fins and scales. Typically referred to as shellfish.
Pesticides in Produce
A true kosher diet would be one that follows the Scripture and although the Scripture does not directly address food additives and the use of chemicals, wisdom does. Medical experts and scientific studies often question the use of these things and the effects they have on our health. I have included this portion about produce because of the use of pesticides and other chemicals in fruit and vegetable farming.
Ideally you want to buy all your produce organic.
In the United States foods that are labeled organic have restrictions in the use of pesticides and other chemicals.If you are not able to buy all items organic there are certain items that have more pesticides in them than others and should probably be avoided. Non organic produce that typically is farmed using pesticides and chemicals are referred to here as the 'dirty dozen'. Often, it is easy to find organic produce in smaller local markets.
The Dirty Dozen:
Sweet Bell Peppers
Sweet Corn (frozen)
Sweet Peas (frozen)
These lists are not complete, they are for examples only. Use wisdom and follow the Torah!